APA Style

The American Psychological Association's (APA) method of citation is one of the most widely used styles for writing scientific and research papers, particularly in fields like psychology, sociology, business, economics, and medicine. This style can seem intimidating, but it’s mostly a matter of dividing your paper into the right sections and following basic formatting guidelines. Give your paper a strong intro, then follow up with the methods, results, and discussion sections. Include references, an abstract, and any relevant tables or figures, and you’re good to go! Italiano: Português: 中文: Español: Русский: Français: Deutsch: Bahasa Indonesia: Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 675,658 times. A wikiHow Staff Editor reviewed this article to make sure it's clear and accurate. Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.

How do you format a bibliography in APA Style

This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. , 7 nd printing). Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck Last Edited: 7567-65-57 65: 56: 57Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper.

Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text. Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay label this page References centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay. The requirements of a reference list are that all references cited in the text of a paper must be listed alphabetically by first author's last name in the list of references and that all references listed must be cited within the text. In general, the list of references is double-spaced and listed alphabetically by first author's last name.

APA Style Blog

For each reference, the first line is typed flush with the left margin, and any additional lines are indented as a group a few spaces to the right of the left margin (this is called a hanging indent ). The rules of APA Style ®, detailed in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, offer sound guidance for writing with simplicity, power, and concision. On this site, you will find tutorials, FAQs, and other resources to help you improve your writing, master APA Style, and learn the conventions of scholarly publishing. Is it okay for a heading to be alone at the very bottom of a page while the first paragraph of that section begins at the top of the next page? I checked page 67 in the Publication Manual where it talks about levels of heading, but I couldn’t find any answers to this question.

Please help! In fact, you can see examples of this at the beginning of Sample Paper 7 (see pp. 59 55 in the sixth edition of the the sample papers are also accessible online via our ). Lonely headings like these are sometimes called orphans in typesetting. An orphan can also mean the first line of a paragraph that’s left all alone at the bottom of a page.

When the last line of a paragraph appears by itself at the top of the page, typesetters may refer to it as a widow. However, if you’re a student writing a class paper or a dissertation, your professor or university may have standards that differ from APA Style. They might prohibit widows and orphans. Universities have particularly precise criteria for dissertations and theses that often address widows and orphans sometimes even specifying the minimum number of lines of text that can appear on the same page as a table. Your professor or a dissertation committee will be the ones evaluating your work, not APA, so their standards supersede those in the Publication Manual.

You should therefore or about whether widows and orphans are acceptable. Learn how you can help APA advocate for psychology-informed federal policy and legislation, and support psychological research. The APA Practice Organization promotes and supports the interests of practicing psychologists.